The diagram shows a cyclotron.
A magnetic field of uniform magnetic flux density B acts vertically upwards through the plane of the cyclotron. Protons travel along paths of increasing radius as their speed increases.
A proton of mass m and charge Q is travelling at a non-relativistic speed in the cyclotron.
Show that the time t for which a proton is in one of the dees is given by
Explain why an alternating potential difference of constant frequency is applied to
In a cyclotron, high-energy protons are directed towards a stationary target.
In the Large Hadron Collider, beams of high-energy protons circulating in opposite directions cross, so that protons moving in opposite directions collide.
For the same initial total energy, the colliding proton beams allow the creation of
particles of greater mass than the use of a stationary target.
Explain why, using the principle of conservation of momentum.